Autopsy Protocol for Investigators

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March 11, 2013 by msashtonwriter

Courtesy of Joe Giacalone from Cold Case Squad.

Hey Everyone,

Here is the complete article from the recent post Writer Question: Does my Homicide Detective Need to Attend an Autopsy? Joe provided us with an answer and he gave me permission to share his post here on Criminal Lines.

Autopsy Protocol for Investigators

Detectives play an important role at the autopsy

By: Joseph L. Giacalone

How many autopsies have I attended? Enough or that I have witnessed my fair share should be a sufficient answer. The autopsy is one of the most important steps in the death investigation, especially when the case is equivocal – a fancy investigative term meaning, “I have no idea what happened.”

Detectives should be required to by department procedure to respond to every death (even in obvious cases), attend every autopsy and make sure that they are on time. The detective’s role is more than that of observer, but to be an active participant as well.
Autopsies are generally conducted the next morning and the case detective, if available  should be present. Many times the case detective may be tied up in the investigation, with court or with lineups, etc., so a responsible detective that has intimate knowledge of the case should go instead. The investigator(s) should be prepared to answer any questions that the medical examiner / coroner has. The main goal for attending the autopsy is to aid the medical examiner / coroner in establishing the manner of death (see article link below) so that the case does not get labeled as “Undetermined.”
Detectives should take with them the following items:

  • Case folder
  • Updated investigative reports – ensure that witness statements if any are updated
  • Crime Scene photos (official)
  • Crime Scene photos (taken by investigators)
  • Wound charts prepared by crime scene technicians
The crime scene photos, especially those taken at the scene by the detective, often play a critical role in determining what transpired during the event. Remember, the medical examiner conducting the autopsy may not have been at the crime scene. It is the job of the detective to inform the medical examiner / coroner by painting a picture with words and then with photographs.
What Detectives should expect to witness at the autopsy:
  • A full cleansing of the body prior to autopsy
  • A full external examination
  • Complete set of exemplars – body hair, fingernail clippings, etc.
  • Photographing of the body
  • Fingerprinting in unidentified cases
  • A complete set of X-Rays
  • Internal examination of the body
  • Examination of internal organs
  • Toxicology – blood, tissue samples
  • Path of bullet / path of stab wound(s) if present
  • Range of fire (distance between muzzle of the gun and victim)
What detectives need to learn / obtain from the autopsy:
  • The Post Mortem Interval (AKA Estimated Time of Death)
  • Manner, Cause and Mechanism of Death
  • Angle of trajectory
  • Length / depth of wounds
  • Wound charts
  • Evidence – i.e. ballistics
  • Gunshot Residue Testing (GSR)
  • Death certificate
After the completion of the autopsy, the detective should ask any follow up questions and or paraphrase the findings. Next, the detective should immediately record all of the findings on an investigative report for the case file as well as deliver any evidence to the laboratory for testing.
Remember, if it isn’t documented, it wasn’t done.
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